The Dangerous Implications of the UN Cybercrime Treaty: Eroding Personal Freedom, Stifling Technological Growth, and Entrenching Incumbent Power 

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As the United Nations moves closer to finalizing a new international treaty on cybercrime, concerns are growing over the potential impact on personal freedom, technological innovation, and the balance of power in the global financial sector.

Draft Article 93 of the treaty, which would impose sweeping surveillance requirements on cryptocurrency and related activities, has raised alarm bells among civil liberties advocates, tech experts, and economists alike. This article will explore the numerous ways in which the proposed treaty could prove disastrous for society at large by undermining personal freedom, impeding technological growth, entrenching incumbent power, and ultimately making the world less safe and more impoverished. 

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Erosion of Personal Freedom and Privacy 

The draft treaty’s provisions for extensive financial surveillance would have a chilling effect on personal freedom and privacy. By requiring organizations involved in digital financial activities to collect and share sensitive user data with governments, the treaty would erode the fundamental right to privacy and expose individuals to potential abuse or discrimination by state actors. In this age of digital connectivity, personal privacy is increasingly important, and the protection of sensitive data has become a critical concern for many individuals. 

Moreover, the broad language of Article 93 could extend surveillance requirements to a wide range of entities, including software developers, miners, validators, and even users of digital financial services. This expansive interpretation could create an environment in which every participant in the digital financial ecosystem is subject to invasive surveillance, further eroding individual privacy rights and discouraging participation in innovative digital finance activities. 

Additionally, the treaty’s provisions for data collection and sharing could lead to the creation of massive centralized databases containing sensitive financial information on millions of individuals. The existence of such databases would increase the risk of data breaches and the potential for misuse of personal information by both state and non-state actors, further undermining individual privacy and exposing users to additional risks. 

The erosion of personal freedom and privacy could also have a broader societal impact, as individuals become more reluctant to engage in digital financial activities out of fear of surveillance and loss of privacy. This could stifle the growth and adoption of digital financial services, limiting the potential benefits of these innovations for individuals and society as a whole. 

Finally, the proposed surveillance requirements could disproportionately affect marginalized and vulnerable populations, who may be more susceptible to discrimination, abuse, or persecution as a result of their financial activities being monitored. This would only serve to exacerbate existing inequalities and further disenfranchise those who are already at a disadvantage. 

  1. Unconstitutionality and Violation of Human Rights 

The intrusive mass surveillance proposed by the treaty may be unconstitutional in many jurisdictions, violating the rights to privacy, free expression, and due process. In countries that enshrine strong protections for civil liberties, the treaty could face legal challenges that undermine its legitimacy and effectiveness. This raises the question of whether the proposed treaty would be enforceable in practice, and whether it could create conflicts between signatory nations with differing legal frameworks and protections for individual rights. 

Furthermore, the treaty’s provisions for “enhanced scrutiny” by states with problematic human rights records raises further concerns about potential abuses of power and violations of international human rights standards. By granting these states the authority to subject individuals in other jurisdictions to heightened surveillance, the treaty could enable the persecution of dissidents, activists, and other individuals who may be targeted for political or other unjustifiable reasons. 

This potential for abuse is particularly concerning in light of the treaty’s broad language, which could be interpreted to apply to a wide range of entities and individuals involved in digital financial activities. As a result, the treaty could provide repressive regimes with a powerful tool for suppressing dissent and maintaining control over their populations, all under the guise of combating cybercrime and promoting international cooperation. 

Additionally, the treaty could undermine existing international human rights norms and agreements by legitimating mass surveillance and data collection practices that contravene established principles of privacy and individual autonomy. This could set a dangerous precedent for future international agreements, further eroding global human rights standards and opening the door to even more intrusive and oppressive state practices. 

Lastly, the potential for abuse and violation of human rights by signatory states could lead to increased international tensions and distrust, as nations accuse one another of misusing the treaty to target political opponents or to persecute vulnerable populations. This could undermine the overall effectiveness of the treaty in combating cybercrime and could have negative repercussions for international relations more broadly. 

  1. Hindrance to Technological Growth and Innovation 

The UN cybercrime treaty’s stringent regulations and compliance requirements could stifle innovation in the digital financial sector, discouraging investment in new technologies and preventing the development of novel applications and services. By imposing burdensome compliance obligations on entities such as software developers, miners, and validators, the treaty could hamper the growth of decentralized finance projects and other cutting-edge digital initiatives. 

First, the compliance costs associated with meeting the treaty’s requirements could be prohibitive for many small businesses, startups, and individual entrepreneurs, effectively shutting them out of the digital financial ecosystem. This could lead to reduced innovation, as fewer new ideas and technologies are developed and brought to market. 

Second, the treaty’s broad language and expansive interpretation could create significant legal uncertainty for businesses and individuals operating in the digital financial sector. This uncertainty could deter investment and hinder the development of new products and services, as market participants are unsure of how the treaty’s provisions will be applied and enforced. 

Third, the treaty could have a chilling effect on the broader digital technology sector, as companies and individuals become more cautious and risk-averse due to concerns about potential legal liabilities and compliance burdens. This could slow the pace of technological advancement in areas beyond digital finance, including artificial intelligence, blockchain, and other emerging technologies. 

Fourth, the proposed treaty could create a fragmented regulatory landscape, with different countries adopting varying interpretations and implementations of its provisions. This could lead to a patchwork of inconsistent regulations, making it difficult for businesses to navigate the global market and impeding cross-border collaboration and innovation. 

Finally, the treaty could inadvertently encourage the development and use of more privacy-invasive and surveillance-oriented technologies, as organizations seek to comply with its requirements for data collection and sharing. This could further erode individual privacy rights and undermine the potential benefits of digital financial technologies for personal freedom and autonomy. 

  1. Protection of Incumbent Financial Institutions 

The treaty’s sweeping surveillance requirements could disproportionately benefit incumbent financial institutions by creating barriers to entry for new entrants and strengthening the market power of established players. By hindering the growth of decentralized financial services and other innovative digital finance solutions, the treaty could inadvertently consolidate the dominance of traditional financial actors, leading to reduced competition, higher costs, and fewer choices for consumers. 

First, the treaty’s onerous compliance requirements could create a competitive advantage for large, established financial institutions, which are better equipped to absorb the costs of compliance and navigate complex regulatory environments. This could make it more difficult for smaller, innovative firms to enter the market and compete with incumbents, leading to reduced competition and less innovation in the sector. 

Second, the treaty could reinforce existing power imbalances in the global financial system by favoring traditional, centralized financial institutions over decentralized, peer-to-peer alternatives. This could further entrench the dominance of major financial centers and powerful actors, potentially exacerbating income inequality and limiting access to financial services for marginalized and underserved populations. 

Third, the treaty’s focus on surveillance and data collection could create perverse incentives for incumbent financial institutions to collaborate with governments and law enforcement agencies in monitoring and controlling digital financial activities. This could lead to a further concentration of power and influence in the hands of a few large financial institutions, undermining the potential for a more open, decentralized, and equitable global financial system. 

Fourth, by stifering the growth of decentralized financial systems, the treaty could contribute to a more fragile and less resilient global financial system. Decentralized finance has the potential to create a more diverse and robust financial ecosystem, reducing the likelihood of systemic crises and promoting economic stability. By hindering the development of such innovations, the treaty could inadvertently make the global financial system more vulnerable to shocks and downturns. 

Finally, the treaty’s surveillance requirements could deter individuals and businesses from adopting innovative digital financial services, further entrenching the power of incumbent financial institutions. This could lead to reduced consumer choice and increased reliance on traditional financial services, preventing the realization of the full potential of digital financial technologies to promote financial inclusion, economic growth, and individual empowerment. 

  1. Detrimental Effects on Security and Financial Stability 

The proposed UN cybercrime treaty could have unintended consequences for global security and financial stability by undermining the privacy and security features of digital financial services. By forcing organizations to collect and share sensitive user data, the treaty could create new vulnerabilities for cybercriminals to exploit, increasing the risk of data breaches and identity theft. 

First, the centralization of sensitive financial data in large databases, as required by the treaty, could make these repositories attractive targets for cybercriminals, state-sponsored hackers, and other malicious actors. This could lead to an increased risk of data breaches, with potentially devastating consequences for individuals and businesses alike. 

Second, the treaty’s requirements for organizations to monitor and report on users’ financial activities could inadvertently undermine the security and privacy features of digital financial services. By creating new opportunities for surveillance and data collection, the treaty could weaken the very attributes that make digital financial technologies attractive to users in the first place. 

Third, the treaty’s surveillance requirements could deter individuals and businesses from using digital financial services, leading to a reduction in the overall security and resilience of the global financial system. As more people opt for traditional financial services, the potential benefits of digital financial technologies – such as increased transparency, reduced fraud, and greater financial inclusion – could be lost. 

Fourth, the treaty could create perverse incentives for governments and law enforcement agencies to prioritize surveillance and data collection over the development and implementation of more effective cybersecurity measures. This could result in a less secure and more vulnerable global financial system, with potentially serious consequences for economic stability and individual well-being. 

Finally, the treaty’s broad language and expansive interpretation could lead to the criminalization of legitimate digital financial activities, further undermining trust in the global financial system and creating new risks for users and providers of digital financial services. 


The UN cybercrime treaty, as currently drafted, has the potential to significantly undermine personal freedom, impede technological growth, entrench incumbent power, and ultimately make the world less safe and more impoverished. By imposing sweeping surveillance requirements on digital financial activities, the treaty threatens to erode individual privacy rights, stifle innovation, and further concentrate power in the hands of traditional financial institutions. In order to avoid these negative consequences, negotiators must carefully consider the implications of the proposed treaty and work to develop a more balanced and rights-respecting framework for international cooperation on cybercrime. 


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